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Full text of "Monthly performance report : Bond Construction"

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SOLAR/ 1050- 79/05 

Monthly 

Performance 

Report 




BOND CONSTRUCTION 
MAY 1979 



U.S. Department of Energy 




National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPOR1 
BOND CONSTRUCTION 
MAY 1979 
I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

The Bond Construction site is a single-family residence in Gladstone, Missouri. 
The home has approximately 1400 square feet of conditioned space. Solar 
energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot v&^r 
(DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a 
gross area of 465 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 37 
degrees to the horizontal. A propylene glycol solution is the transfer- 
medium that delivers solar energy from the collector array to an external 
heat exchanger. Water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy -From 
the external heat exchanger to storage and from storage to the hot v/ater "load 
and liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the furnace. Air is the trans f er medium 
that delivers solar energy to the space heating load. Solar energy is stored 
in the basement in an 800-gallon steel storage tank with walls approximately 
1/4-inch thick. The storage tank has 4-inch polyurethane insulation on the 
bottom and 8-inch fiberglass insulation on the top and sides. Preheated city 
water is stored in an 82-gallon DHW tank. When solar energy is insufficient 
to satisfy the space heating load, a gas furnace provides auxiliary energy 
for space heating. Similarly, an electrical immersion heater in the DHW tank 
provides auxiliary energy for heating the supply water. Solar energy Is 
transferred from the storage tank to the hot-air heating system by a liquid- 
to-air heat exchanger contained in the furnace ductwork; solar energy is 
transferred from the storage tank to the DHW tank by an annular heat exchanger 
jacket around the hot water tank. The house also contains a fireplace with 
an integral fan; the fireplace is only instrumented for monitoring fan power- 
consumption. The system, shown schematically in Figure 1, has 5 modes o f 
solar operation. 

Mode 1 - Col lector- to-Storage : This mode activates when there is a tempera- 
ture difference of 20°F between a control sensor located at the collector and 
a control sensor located inside the storage tank (near the bottom). At 
this time the controller turns on both the collector and storage circuit 




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pumps (PI and P2, respectively). Solar energy is transferred from the collector 
to the storage tank by an external heat exchanger. Both pumps continue to 
operate until the temperature difference is less than 5°F; the controller 
then turns both pumps off. 

Mode 2 - Storage- to-Space Heating : This mode activates when the room tem- 
perature drops to the setting on the house thermostat. At this point, this 
mode is initiated if the storage temperature, measured by a control sensor 
inside the tank (near the top), is higher than 95°F. If so, the furnace 
circuit pump (P3) turns on and hot water circulates from the storage tank 
through a liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the furnace. At the same time the 
furnace fan turns on, forcing air past the heat exchanger, thereby transferring 
the solar energy to the heating load. If the room temperature drops an 
additional increment (set point), the auxiliary gas burner turns on to provide 
auxiliary energy to the heating load. If storage temperature falls to 90°F 
while in this mode, the mode terminates. However, the fan and gas furnace 
continue to supply energy until the thermostat demand is satisfied. If the 
storage temperature is below 95°F when the room thermostat calls for heat, 
this mode does not activate; auxiliary energy is then provided by the gas 
furnace. The pump, fan and burner (if on) are turned off when the room 
temperature exceeds the thermostat setting. 

Mode 3 - Storage- to-DHW : This mode activates when there is a temperature 
difference of 10°F between the control sensor located inside the storage tank 
(near the top) and the control sensor located in the hot water tank (near the 
middle). This mode terminates when the temperature difference drops to 3°F. 
When this mode activates, pump P4 circulates hot water from the storage tank 
through an annular jacket surrounding the hot water tank; energy is thereby 
transferred to the water in the hot water tank. The electric immersion 
heater in the hot water tank turns on to provide auxiliary energy to the DHW 
if the temperature in the hot water tank drops below its thermostat setting. 

Mode 4 - Elimination of Excess Heat in Summer : This mode activates when the 
storage tank temperature, as determined by an aquastat located in the tank, 
exceeds 180°F. At this time the collector and storage circuit pumps (PI and 



P2, respectively) are activated, thereby transferring energy from the storage 
tank to the collector by way of the external heat exchanger. This energy is 
then radiated from the collector to the atmosphere. This mode continues until 
the storage temperature drops below 180°F. 

Mode 5 - Snow Removal in Winter : This mode activates when the collector 
and storage circuit pumps (PI and P2) are manually switched on in order to 
melt the snow that has accumulated on the collector. 



II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 

The site was unoccupied in May and the solar energy system operated contin- 
uously during the month. Total solar energy collected was 25.7 million Btu 
and the total solar energy used was 2.5 million Btu or 10 percent of the 
collected energy. The change in stored energy was 0.34 million Btu and the 
total system losses amounted to 3.8 million Btu. Solar energy satisfied 96 
percent of the space heating requirements. The solar energy system incurred 
an electrical energy expense of 0.23 million Btu and provided a fossil fuel 
energy savings of 0.34 million Btu. The control problem that caused intermit- 
tent cycling of mode 1 during periods of good insolation continued throughout 
the month. There was no hot water load in May because the water was turned 
off. 



WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 
25.7 million Btu for a daily average of 1780 Btu per square foot. This was 
above the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical 
area during May of 1712 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a 
tilt of 37 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature 



during May was 64°F the same as the long-term average. The number of heating 
degree-days for the month (based on a 65°F reference) was 98, as compared 
with the long-term average of 127. The number of cooling degree-days was 81, 
as compared with the long-term average of 99. 



THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

System - During May the solar energy system performed approximately the 
same as expected. The expected performance was determined from a modified 
f-chart analysis using measured weather and subsystem loads as input. Solar 
energy used by the system was estimated by assuming that all energy collected 
would be applied to the load. Actual solar energy used was 2.5 million Btu 
and was equal to the estimated 2.5 million Btu. System total solar fraction 
was 96 percent versus an estimated 100 percent. 

Collector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of May was 25.7 million Btu. During the period the collector loop was 
operating, the total insolation amounted to 7.5 million Btu. The total 
collected solar energy for the month of May was 4.2 million Btu, resulting in 
a collector array efficiency of 16 percent, based on total incident insola- 
tion. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 4.3 
million Btu. Operating energy required by the collector loop was 0.17 
million Btu. Mode 4 operation during the month resulted in 0.24 million Btu 
being rejected to the outside ambient via the collector array. This repre- 
sents approximately 6 percent of the solar energy collected during the month. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 4.3 million Btu. There were 
2.5 million Btu delivered from storage to the DHW and space heating subsystems 
Energy loss from storage was 1.4 million Btu. This loss represented 33 
percent of the energy delivered to storage. The storage efficiency was 67 
percent: This is calculated as the ratio of the sum of the energy removed 
from storage and the change in stored energy, to the energy delivered to 
storage. The average storage temperature for the month was 156°°F. 



DHW Load - The DHW subsystem consumed 2.3 million Btu of solar energy and no 
auxiliary electrical energy. There was no hot water load because the water 
was turned off during the entire month. Losses from the DHW subsystem were 
2.3 million Btu. The DHW subsystem consumed a total of 0.054 million Btu of 
operating energy, resulting in an electrical energy expense of 0.054 million 
Btu. This subsystem is discussed further in the "Observations" section. 

Space Heating Load - The space heating subsytem consumed 0.21 million Btu of 
solar energy and 0.004 million Btu of auxiliary thermal energy to satisfy a 
space heating load of 0.15 million Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 
96 percent. Losses from the space heating subsytem were 0.059 million Btu. 
The space heating subsytem consumed a total of 0.013 million Btu of operating 
energy, resulting in an electrical energy expense of 0.002 million Btu and a 
fossil fuel energy savings of 0.34 million Btu. 



OBSERVATIONS 

Due to a defective controller, mode 1 cycled during periods of good insolation 
during the entire month. The grantee will replace this controller as soon as 
a replacement controller is available. While this cycling affected the 
collector performance, the higher-than-normal total incident solar energy on 
the collector array and the very low subsystem loads resulted in a buildup of 
stored energy in the storage tank this month. The average storage temperature 
for May was 156°F, compared to 117°F in April. Sometimes the temperature in 
the storage tank exceeded 180°F, resulting in activation of mode 4. (A 
maximum temperature of 188°F was recorded at T204.) During approximately 12 
hours of mode A operation, 0.24 million Btu were rejected via the collector 
array to the outside ambient. Mode 4 operation consumed approximately 14 
percent of the total operating energy required by the collector loop. 

Anomalies in two of the three storage temperature sensors required that the 
storage temperature be based on the single operating sensor. Since this 
sensor measures the temperature at the top of the tank, the reported average 
storage temperature is probably higher than the true average storage tempera- 
ture. 



The' flow sensor in the storage/DHW loop (W300) is defective. Therefore, the 
design flow of 3 gallons per minute was used to determine the amount of solar 
energy delivered from storage to the DHW subsystem during May. The operating 
energy consumed by the DHW subsystem during mode 3 was considered to be an 
electrical energy expense since there was no DHW load during the month; 
therefore, the solar energy transfer from storage to the DHW heater served no 
useful purpose. (The house was unoccupied and the water was turned off. ) 

The performance factors show that 4.3 million Btu of solar energy were input 
to storage during May, although only 4.2 million Btu were collected. Analy- 
sis shows an energy gain between the collector and the heat exchanger input. 
An analysis of temperature differentials in the collector loop during mode 1 
indicates that temperature sensor T100 (collector input) may be reading high. 
The calibration of this sensor, and the other temperature sensors in the 
collector loop, should be checked to verify that accurate temperature measure- 
ments are being recorded. 

Based on the average storage temperature for the month (156°F) and the average 
ambient temperature at the storage tank (82°F), the storage loss for May 
indicates an R-value of approximately 6 for the storage tank when the design 
value was R-27 or greater. There will be an investigation to determine whether 
the high storage losses are due to insulation problems or possible thermosi- 
phoning in the collector loop. 



ENERGY SAVINGS 

The solar energy system provided a total fossil fuel energy savings of 0.34 
million Btu and incurred an electrical energy expense of 0.23 million Btu. 
The DHW subsystem incurred an electrical energy expense of 0.054 million Btu, 
while the space heating subsystem provided a fossil fuel energy savings of 
0.34 million Btu and incurred an electrical energy expense of 0.002 million 
Btu. 



III. ACTION STATUS 

The grantee will replace the collector controller in June. Boeing must 
resolve the instrumentation sensor anomalies and check the calibration of the 
collector loop temperature sensors on their next site visit. No site visit 
is scheduled at this time. There will be an investigation of the high storage 
losses. 



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